Hyponoetics - Glossary
Panpsychism Parahyle Paranoesis Paranoetic Information Parapsychology Perception Personality Perspectivity Phase Manifestion Phenomenon Potentiality Precognition Process Psychic Phenomena

Panpsychism is a doctrine about the nature of spatio-temporal reality. It asserts that each spatio-temporal thing has a mental or 'inner' aspect.....that there may be varying degrees in which things have inner subjective or quasi-conscious aspects, some very unlike what we experience as consciousness.
(Ted Honderich: The Oxford Companion to Philosophy, Oxford University Press 1995)

The theory that holds that the world is rendered more comprehensible on the assumption that every object is inversted with a soul or mind. Like the related doctrines of animal soul and world soul, the theory is anti-materialist and historically rooted in post-Cartesian debates about whether only man can be said to possess a soul or mind. In various forms, panpsychical views are evident in the philosophy of Leibniz and Schopenhauer. The most notable modern proponent of the theory has been A.N. Whitehead.
(Antony Flew: A Dictionary of Philosophy, St. Martin's Press 1979)

From Greek παρά (past, beyond) and ὑλη (hyle = stuff of which things are made, material, matter). There are two kinds of matter-energy: a) Exohyle and Autohyle as representing the visible world we perceive and experience and b) Parahyle, which reunites Exohyle with Hyponoesis. Parahyle is the pure energy-field or the quantum physical vacuum that is the source of all physical manifestations.

Paranoetic Information is information that is not accessible to rational or analytical thinking, i.e. it cannot be directly translated into human concepts and language. However, this kind of information can be accessed directly through the agency of Paranoesis or Transrational Thinking, a new faculty of the mind that transcends rational thought and therefore also surpasses the capacity of language.
(see Essay Paranoetic Information Semantics, Glossary Entry 'Information')

The extraction and use of information about one's environment (exteroception) and one's own body (proprioception). The external senses - sight, hearing, touch, smell, and taste - though overlapping to some extent, are distinguished primarily by the kind of information they convey. Proprioception concerns stimuli arising within, and carrying information about, one's own body: acceleration, position and orientation of limbs, and so on.
(Ted Honderich: The Oxford Companion to Philosophy, Oxford University Press 1995)

In my philosophy, the complex unity of Individual Mind, Consciousness (as the product of mind-brain interaction) and Body.

The Individual Mind interacts through the brain with the body and the environment. This produces consciousness as the necessary and concomitant fact of a living being. Together with the extended capacity of the brain, the Individual Mind's manifestation results in what is called Personality.

Perspectivism. The view that the external world is to be interpreted through different alternative systems of concepts and beliefs and that there is no authoritative independent criterion for determining that one such system is more valid than another.
(Antony Flew: A Dictionary of Philosophy, St. Martin's Press 1979)

Perspektive (von lat. per, durch, und spectare, betrachten). Als philos. Fachausdruck wird das Wort Perspektive bedeutungsgleich verwendet mit Aspekt, Betrachtungsweise, Blickwinkel oder Gesichtspunkt. Für Leibniz stellt jede Monade die Welt aus ihrer eigenen Perspektive dar. Nach dem Perspektivismus u.a. bei Nietzsche und Ortega y Gasset sieht jeder Mensch die Welt unter seinem persönlichen Gesichtspunkt; daraus folgt, dass alle Erkenntnis relativ ist und die Wirklichkeit nur aus der Summe aller möglichen Perspektiven besteht.
(Philosophie Lexikon, Rowohlt, 1991)

.....da der menschliche Intellekt ... nicht umhin kann, sich selbst unter seinen perspektivischen Formen zu sehen und nur in ihnen zu sehen. Wir können nicht um unsere Ecke sehen: es ist eine hoffnungslose Neugierde, wissen zu wollen, was es noch für andere Arten Intellekt und Perspektive geben könnte....
Die Welt ist uns vielmehr noch einmal "unendlich" geworden: insofern wir die Möglichkeit nicht abweisen können, dass sie unendliche Interpretationen in sich schliesst.
(Friedrich Nietzsche: Die fröhliche Wissenschaft, V 374)

see also Aspect.

Physical and mental objects are only different aspects of the same fundamental entity, which is neither physical nor mental, but a kind of neutral substance. Now the difference lies in the level or degree of manifestation, i.e. the physical object has a different level (or phase) of manifestation than the mental object.
As an analogy the following comparison with energy levels may help elucidate this subject matter: Different phases of energy manifest themselves differently. Higher vibrations of energy are visible as light, whereas lower vibrations are visible as material objects. Similarly, higher phase manifestations result in mental objects and lower phase manifestations result in physical objects.
..... Analogously, the Universal Mind, by referencing itself from different perspectives, creates an infinite multitude of objects or phases of manifestation. (see Essay The Evolution of Exonoesis)

Phenomena and noumena. These terms mean literally 'things that appear' and 'things that are thought'. Platonic Ideas and Forms are noumena, and phenomena are things displaying themselves to the senses.
[Kant] The intelligible world of noumena is known by pure reason, which gives us knowledge of things as they are. Things in the sensible world (phenomena) are known through our senses and known only as they appear. To know noumena we must abstract from and exclude sensible concepts such as space and time.
(Ted Honderich: The Oxford Companion to Philosophy, Oxford University Press 1995)

Any object or occurrence perceived by the senses. 1. (in Greek philosophy) Sensible appearance, contrasted with the real object apprehended by the intellect. 2. (in Kant) The object interpreted through categories, contrasted with noumenon.
(Antony Flew: A Dictionary of Philosophy, St. Martin's Press 1979)

[Kant].... the terms of distinction...shifted from phenomena being the external manifestation of invisible forces or objects, to them being simply 'objects of sensibility' as opposed to noumena or intelligible objects which can only be 'cognised through the intelligence'. [In Critique of Pure Reason]... phenomena distinguished from noumena in terms of sensible and intelligible worlds and in terms of sensible and intelligible objects.
(Howard Caygill: A Kant Dictionary, Blackwell, 1995)

cf. Noumenon.

A potentiality, or latent ability, is a second-order capacity of an object or person, a capacity to acquire, develop, or regain another (first-order) capacity. Thus a normal new-born human infant has a potentiality to speak English, meaning that it has the capacity to acquire the ability to speak English. The realization of such a potentiality - that is, the acquisition of the relevant first-order capacity - may involve both natural processes of maturation and the presence of suitable environmental conditions.
In a more general sense, potentiality is traditionally contrasted with actuality, a distinciton intimately related in Aristotelian metaphysics to the distinction between matter and form, and one which more or less coincides with the modern distinction between the dispositional and the occurrent.
(Ted Honderich: The Oxford Companion to Philosophy, Oxford University Press 1995)

actuality and potentiality. Contrasting terms for that which has form, in Aristotle's sense, and that which has merely the possibility of having form. Actuality (Greek: energeia) is that mode of being in which a thing can bring other things about or be brought about by them - the realm of events and facts. By contrast, potentiality (Greek: dynamis) is not a mode in which a thing exists, but rather the power to effect change, the capacity of a thing to make transitions into different states.
(Antony Flew: A Dictionary of Philosophy, St. Martin's Press 1979)

Hyponoesis (Universal Mind) continuously creates and sustains reality. This reality however is only a potential reality. This potential reality consists of an infinite number of potentialities, out of which Exonoesis (Individual Mind) establishes an actual reality through the act of noetic operations like perception, thinking, comprehension, abstraction, judgment, etc.

The brain receives and processes the lower phase manifestations from physical objects and, via consciousness, matches or relates theses phase patterns to the eternal and potential mental patterns. We can also say that a sensational pattern incites or actualizes the mental pattern (s. Eccles). The mental pattern, however, exists first. The Individual Mind contains all objects and ideas as potentialities, also from objects that will be created physically in what we call the future time. (see Essay The Evolution of Exonoesis)

cf. Actuality.

The alleged ability directly to know the future without the use of inferences or guesswork. Precognition is a major category of extrasensory perception (ESP). The most common type of precognitive experience, comprising about three-quarters of survey and case reports, is the dream that seems to contain information about events that later occur.
(Leonard George: Alternative Realities, Facts on File, 1995, p. 228)

Some evidence for getting information outside of the locally stored information in our memory can be found in the scientific study of paranormal or psychic phenomena, such as telepathy and precognition. Both faculties of the mind get information from outside of the local realm of the individual mind and the brain. (see Essay Knowledge and Information)

see also Psychic Phenomena.

A process is a series of changes with some sort of unity, or unifying principle, to it. Hence 'process' is to 'change', or 'event', rather as 'syndrome' is to 'symptom'. What sort of unity might a given process have? Perhaps just this: that the process is found to recur sufficiently often in nature - it seems to belong to a 'natural kind'.
(Ted Honderich: The Oxford Companion to Philosophy, Oxford University Press 1995)

That the actual world is a process, and that the process is the becoming of actual entities.... That how an actual entity becomes constitutes what that actual entity is; so that the two descriptions of an actual entity are not independent. Its 'being' is constituted by its 'becoming'. This is the 'principle of process'.
(Alfred North Whitehead: Process and Reality, The Free Press 1979, p. 22 f.)

Psychic. This widely used word, which can be an adjective or a noun, derives from the Greek psyche, meaning 'mind' or 'soul'. As an adjective, psychic is often used synonymously with paranormal. Any event that appears to challenge conventional assumptions regarding the limits of possibility is designated a psychic phenomenon .
Paranormal. Literally, "beside the normal," a paranormal event is one that violates the boundaries of space and time, or cause and effect, as they are normally understood. For instance, precognition, telepathy and clairvoyance, all considered impossible according to conventional science, are paranormal phenomena. Whether or not paranormal events ever occur has been hotly debated for ages. A paranormal experience is one that appears to involve a paranormal event.

Parapsychology. As Morris defined it, parapsychology is "the study of apparent new means of communication or interaction between an organism and elements in its environment."
(Leonard George: Alternative Realities, Facts on File, 1995)

Current studies in parapsychology are connected to studies of consciousness. The Journal of Consciousness Studies published a few articles dealing with scientific approaches to psychic phenomena, especially in relation to quantum physics's concept of non-locality:

Whether computational or connectionist, most contemporary models of mental events are based upon 'classical' views of physical and informational exchange. Such models cannot adequately deal with psi phenomena, which involve 'nonlocal' exchanges between consciousness and external events.
Consciousness Research Abstracts: Consciousness at the Crossroads of Philosophy and Cognitive Science, Imprint Academic 1995